Flora & Fauna of Rajasthan is very interesting & unique. Rajasthan forest is also famous for Black buck (kala hiran) & blue bull (Nilgai).
Flora & Fauna of Rajasthan India
Flora of Rajasthan India - Forests mostly confined to the east of the Aravali range constitute just about 9 percent of the total area of the state. Vegetation in the desert region is limited to very slow growing stunted trees, thorny shrubs and some grasses. The other natural vegetation type in Rajasthan is ephemeral, occurring only during the monsoon season.
Kejri (prosopis cineraria) is the most prolific and an all purpose tree of the desert arid zone and its bean shaped fruit, sangri, is eaten as vegetable and used as fodder. The ker fruit is also eaten as vegetable and it has strong and durable wood. The other prominent trees prospering in sandy soil include akaro (calotropis precera) and shrubs, the thor (euphorbia caduca), bordi (sizypus nummularia), babul (acacia nilotica) and anwal (cassia aureculata) etc. perennial grasses of the arid zone sewan (lasiurus sindicus), dhaman (cenhrus cikaris), boor (cenchrus jwarancusa) and bharut (cenchrus catharficus) not only help to bind the soil but also are good fodder for the live stock.
The shallow wetlands of eastern Rajasthan are dotted by shrubs, creeper, bushes and herbs. Common trees found in the Keoladeo National Park include babul (acacia nilotica) and khejri (prosopis cineria). The Ranthambore National Park has about 75 tree species which includes Dhak (butea monosperma), peepal (ficus religlora), banyan (ficus bengha lensis), ber (zizyphus mauritiana) and khajur (phoenix sylvestris) prominently. There are 30 species of grasses, 13 types of shrubs and over hundred of medicinal species. Trees found in the hilly area of Mount Abu includes salar (bowellia seriata), bamboo (dendor calamus strictus), dhav (anogeisrus pendula), mango and jamun (syzygium cumini). Some of the plant species are rare including 3 species of wild roses, 16 species of ferns and two species of orchids (arides and viscum).
Close to Jaipur, the area is abundant with dhav and plant speices like solar, thor, godal, guggal (commiphora), brahmi (bacopa monnieri), shatawari (asparagus) and adusa (adathoda vassica).
Fauna of Rajasthan India
The faunal wealth of the Rajasthan presents a vivid spectrum ranging from mammals and reptiles to bird life. Antelopes and gazelles are found in most of the regions of Rajasthan. Black buck (kala hiran) promintently inhabit the Jodhpur region and the small herds of Indian gazelle (chinkara) are found in the sandy deserts. The robust blue bull (Nilgai) is spotted frequently on open plains and in the foot hills of the Aravalis. The four horned antelope (chau singha) lives in the hilly regions.
Of the deer family, sambar and the spotted deer (chital) is found in forests interspersed with patcy open meadows. Of the monkeys only rhesus macauqe (bandar) and langur predominantly harbour in the vicinity of the Aravali. The best known of the cat family in Rajasthan is the Indian tiger (bagh). Termed as an endangered species, tigers are now in the protection of national parks in Ranthambhore and Sariska. Another of the threatened species is leopard or panthar (baghera) found in the rocky outcrops in the Aravalis and open arid countryside in Jodhpur area. Others include jungle cat (jungli bilao) and the caracal (syiagosh). The prominent members of the dog family once quite prolific in Rajasthan are the jackal (gidar), the wolf (bhedia) and the desert fox (lomdi).
The wild boar whose hunt was once the favourite leisure activity of the Maharajas of Rajasthan is found around Mount Abu. Sloth bear can be seen, though rarely, in the deciduous forests of Ranthambhore. The common mangoose (newla) and the smaller Indian mangoose mostly found in the arid zone live on rodents, birds and even snakes. The reptile species commonly sighted are Indian python (ajgar), the Indian chameleon (girgit) and the garden lizard (chhipkali).
The crocodile and the ghariyal are large aquatic predators of rivers and lakes. Rajasthan has not only nearly extinct water birds migrating from Siberia (over 6000 km) but also from the south of the Himalayas. The Keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur has almost 375 bird species and of great interest is the world's tallest black necked stork standing up to 1.8 m tall and its black and white wings span up to 2.5 m. Hordes of demoiselle cranes can be sighted at Khichan and Sambhar. The rare Indian bustard and the grey patridge are the birds of open scrub forestes of Rajasthan.
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